Michael Faraday was a physicist and chemist. He discovered the magnetic effect of electric current. He studied electromagnetic induction and regulated it. Faraday made many discoveries during his lifetime. In 1831, made an important discovery of the principle of electromagnetic induction. Electromotive force is produced by rotating a conductor in a magnetic field. Faraday’s law faraday’s law The future generator was built on this principle and the foundation of modern electrical engineering was laid.

Many types of machines and motors work on the principle of magnetic effect of electric current. In this blog of ours today **Faraday’s law** In this we will discuss about Michael Faraday’s laws of magnetic induction.

## What are Faraday’s laws?

In 1831, Michael Faraday made an important discovery of the principle of electromagnetic induction. Electromotive force is produced by rotating a conductor in a magnetic field. So far generators have been made on this principle. He did important work on electroanalysis and established the laws of electrical analysis, which are called Faraday’s laws. Faraday wrote many books, in which the most useful book is “Experimental Researches in Electricity”.

Michael Faraday has given two laws related to electromagnetic induction in the year 1831 to find out the causes and consequences of electromotive force in the experiments of electromagnetic induction –

- Faraday’s first law of electrolysis
- faraday’s second law of electrolysis

## What is electromagnetic induction?

Ostend reported in 1832 that when an electric current is passed through a conductor, a magnetic field is set up around it.

Inspired by this magnetic effect of electric current, Faraday presented his idea that on the contrary, electric current can also be generated by magnetic field. From his experiments, Faraday concluded that when a magnet is brought near a coil connected to a galvanometer. The galvanometer is deflected and an EMF (EMF) is generated in the coil due to which a current flows in the coil. This deflection in the galvanometer remains as long as the magnet remains in motion. When the magnet is fixed, the deflection in the galvanometer stops.

From this, Faraday concluded that when there is relative motion between a coil and a magnet, an electromotive force is generated in the coil, which is called induced electromotive force.

Due to this electromotive force, a current flows in the coil, which is called induced current. This phenomenon itself is called electromagnetic induction.

## Definition of Electromagnetic Induction

The phenomenon of induction of electromotive force in a coil due to relative motion between a closed coil and a magnet is called electromagnetic induction.

## State the first law of Faraday?

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, or Faraday’s law of induction, is a fundamental law of electromagnetism. The functioning of transformer, electric generator etc. is based on this principle. According to this law, when the magnetic flux associated with a circuit changes with time, an emf is induced in the circuit. This induced current remains in the circuit as long as there is a change in the magnetic flux associated with it. meaning

When an electric current is passed through an electrolyte solution, the amount of substance W deposited on the electrodes is proportional to the amount of charge Q.

meaning

W ∝ Q

amount of charge = current x time

Q = I x t

Image source: Wikipedia

W ∝ I xt

W=ZIt

Here, Z is a constant called the electrochemical equivalent. It is defined as follows.

If I = 1 ampere and

t = 1 second then

W = Z

Therefore, when a current of 1 ampere is passed through a solution of an electrolyte for 1 second, the amount of material deposited (collected) is called electrochemical equivalent.

## faraday’s experiment

- Faraday took two coils of wire.
- The electromotive force (EMF) produced in a closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux flowing through that circuit.

**The mathematical form of Faraday’s law is as follows-**

Where,

E = electromotive force (in volts).

Φ = magnetic flux passing through the circuit (in Weber / (Wb)).

According to Lenz’s law, “The direction of the generated electromotive force is such that it can oppose the generating cause.”

## Meaning of physical quantities used in equations

‘Faraday ke Niyam’ has come to its present form after being developed in several stages. According to the law of induction introduced by Faraday in 1831 **The potential developed in a closed circuit is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines crossing the circuit. **Because Faraday had given this law orally and talked about the ‘number of magnetic flux lines’ envisaged by himself, for this reason Faraday’s law did not spread and later again in 1845, Newman gave mathematical form to this law. Presented in-

where, ф_{B }is the magnetic flux which is defined as follows-

From the definition of potential difference, the following equation can be written-

Where, E = electric field at any point of the circuit.

Using Stokes’ theorem, Faraday’s law can also be written as:

The minus sign (-) used here is the original contribution of Heinrich Lenz. Lange said that **If the circuit is closed, the direction of current generated in the circuit is such that it opposes the cause that has produced it.**

That is, if an electric current is passed in a closed circuit, it opposes the cause from which it originated.

## State Faraday’s second law?

According to Faraday’s second law, when the magnitude of the induced emf in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux associated with that circuit.

That is, when an equal amount of electric current is passed through a solution of two or more electrolytes, the amount (W) of the substance deposited on the electrode is proportional to their chemical equivalent (E). The induced emf is equal to the negative rate of change of flux

meaning

W ∝ E

W1 ∝ E1 for the first electrolyte

W2 ∝ E2 for second electrolyte

## Faraday’s laws can be summarized as

Where

*m =*The mass of the substance deposited on an electrode is.*Q*= is the amount of total charge flowing through the solution.*f*= 96485 C mol^{-1}To**faraday constant**it is said.*M =*is the molar mass of the substance.*z =*The valence number of an ion is a measure of how many electrons are transferred per ion.-
*m/z*is the equivalent weight of the deposited substance. - For Faraday’s first law, M, F, and z are constants and the greater Q, the greater m.
- For Faraday’s second law,
*Q*,*f*And*Z*are constants; therefore*m/z*The greater the (equivalent load),**m**The more it will be.

In a simple situation in which the current remains constant, then

And

Where

*n*The number of moles is :*n = m / M**t*is the time period for which the current flows,- But if variable current is flowing, then the total charge
*Q*value of

## What is 1 faraday equal to?

- 1 Faraday = 96,500 Coulomb.
- This is a charge of 1 mole of electrons.
- 1 Faraday, at an electrode, liberates one gram equivalent of the substance.
- On passing one Faraday of charge, one gram mole of the substance is deposited at the cathode.

## State Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, or more popularly known as Faraday’s law of induction, is a fundamental law of electromagnetism. The functioning of transformers, electric generators etc. is based on this principle. According to this law, the electromotive force (EMF) produced in a closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux flowing through that circuit.

The principle of electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831, and Joseph Henry independently discovered the principle in the same year. Faraday presented this law mathematically as follows – where EMF (in V) is the magnetic flux passing through the circuit (in Weber / (Wb)) Apply Lenz’s law for the direction of EMF generated. it happens. In short, Lenz’s law says that the direction of the generated electromotive force is such that it can oppose the generating cause. The minus sign in the above formula indicates the same thing.

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