Where is the alphabet used?


For the knowledge of Hindi language and literature, it is very important to have knowledge of Hindi alphabet. What is Hindi alphabet? How many letters are in Hindi varnamala? What is vowel consonant in Hindi varnmala? How many numbers are there in Hindi varnamala? You will know about all these questions in this blog.

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What is the alphabet called?

The expression of any language is known through sounds. When we speak what is called sound. Through this we express our thoughts and feelings and convey them to the person in front. On the other hand, if we want to write thoughts and feelings, then we have to use symbols to write these sounds. These symbols of sound are called letters. The smallest unit in a language is sound or letter. A group of letters is known as a letter. A varnamala is formed by combining all the varnas or letters. The arrangement of letters in a systematic group is called alphabet.

Hindi Varnmala
Source – Pinterest

types of hindi alphabet

In Hindi grammar, the Hindi alphabet is divided into two parts.

  1. Swar
  2. Cuisine (Vyanjan)


Those syllables, whose pronunciation does not require the help of any other syllable or syllables spoken independently, are called vowels.

  • The number of first vowels in the Hindi alphabet was 14.

A A A E E U U U R R L A A O A O and R and Lr and Lr both are no longer used. Thus now the number of vowels in Hindi Varnamala is 11.

tone volume

  • a
  • aa – aa
  • e – i
  • e – e
  • U-U
  • oo-oo
  • r – r
  • A – E
  • ai – ai
  • o – o
  • au – u

The number of vowels in the Hindi alphabet is 10 on the basis of quantity.

a Come I E
u oo r a
aye O! and

type of vowel

In Hindi Varnamala, there are three types of vowels based on pronunciation.

  • voice tone – The vowel which takes very little time to pronounce (of a quantity), is called Hrsva vowel.
  • long vowel – Those whose pronunciation takes twice the time of one volume (Hrsva vowel), it is called bimatrik or long vowel.
    Like- A E O O R A A O O
  • Plut Vowel – Whose pronunciation takes the most time (more than long vowels). It usually takes three times the amount of time to pronounce it. Like – Father! Hey Mohana!

must read 150 Paryayvachi Shbd (Synonyms)

classification of vowels

The following is the classification of vowels in Hindi grammar.
1- On the basis of the height of the tongue –

  • open – come
  • semi-open
  • Semi Closed – AO
  • closed – ee u u

2- On the basis of raised part of tongue –

  • Agraswar – E E A A Aa
  • middle vowel – a
  • Backswara – Aa U O O O Oo

3- On the basis of the position of the lips –

  • Prasrit – E E A A
  • circle – u o o ooo
  • half circle – aa

4- Based on the tension of the tongue muscles –

  • loose – ai u
  • hard – aye oo

must read Anuswar in Hindi


The letters which cannot be pronounced without the help of vowels are called consonant letters (Hindi Vyanjan).
Eg – A (Q+A)

  • Each consonant is pronounced with a.
  • In Hindi Varnmala no consonant is pronounced without ‘a’ vowel.

Consonants are written in two ways ,

  • with steep pie
    a b c d f h jjjn
  • With unsweetened pie-
    chhat dh dh r

types of dishes

There are 3 types of consonants in the Hindi alphabet (Hindi Varnmala/Alphabet).

  1. touch dishes
  2. final consonant
  3. hot dishes
  • touch dishes –

The consonants in which air comes out of the lungs and touches a particular place (gut, palate, pharynx, teeth and lips) while pronouncing it, are called touch consonants.

like –

  • cuisine class
  • a b c d – a
  • f g h j j – f
  • st st st
  • t th d dh n – t
  • p f b b m – p

The total number of touch consonants in the Hindi Varnmala (alphabet) is 25.

  • Final dishes –

The letters which are pronounced in the middle of the alphabet (between vowels and consonants) are called Antastha consonants.
For example, the final consonant – ya r l v

  • Hot/Conflicting Cuisine –

The consonants in which the air feels friction/rubbing in the mouth, it is called hot/conflict consonant.
For example – hot / conflicting dishes – shash sah

classification of dishes

The classification of consonants on the basis of pronunciation in Hindi Varnmala is as follows –

  • gorge – a b c d h
  • Talavya – Ch Ch H J J Y Sh
  • Stupid – Stupid
  • Dantya
  • Oshthya – Pfb Bhm
  • dental – and
  • nasal – j n m


The first and second consonants of each class of tangential consonants of Hindi Varnmala (Kachchatapa) are called Aghosa consonants.


The third, fourth and fifth dishes of each class are called Ghosh dishes. Like- c d h j j d dh dh n bh in

short life

The first, third, fifth consonants of each class are called small consonants. For example,


The second and fourth dishes of each class are called aspiran dishes. For example – b d ch jh d dha f bh

Source: Hindi Stories Kahaniya


How many letters are there in Hindi alphabet?

The set of arrangement of letters is called alphabet. There are 52 alphabets in Hindi on the basis of pronunciation. It has 11 vowels and 41 consonants. There are 56 letters on the basis of writing, in which there are 11 vowels, 41 consonants and 4 combined consonants.

How many consonants are there in Hindi?

There are total 39 consonants in Hindi, of which 33 consonants are standard Hindi consonants, four are combined consonants (ksh, tra, gna, shr) and two are utkshtt consonants.

How many letters are there from A to G?

There are 36 letters from A to G.

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